Blood Type
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The theory that blood type is linked to personality (and other mental and physical qualities) is popular mainly in Japan, though it has carried over to Taiwan and South Korea. It was started by the Germans in 1901, who, after the discovery that certain races are more likely to be predominantly of certain blood types—such as Asians being more likely than other races to be type B—used the theory to "scientifically" explain Aryan genetic superiority.

The theory experienced a popular resurgence in 1927, when Takeji Furukawa, a professor at Tokyo Women's Teachers School, published a paper entitled "The Study of Temperament Through Blood Type" in the journal Psychological Research. After failed militaristic and social experiments, the unscientific nature of the theory was widely understood, and it lost popularity during the 1930's.

It was revived again in 1971 by Masahiko Nomi's book Understanding Affinity Through Blood Type. Nomi was a lawyer and journalist with no medical training or background. Despite Nomi's lack of scientific proof, anecdotal basis, and unclear methods, as well as constant attacks on the theory from the medical and psychological communities, the theory is still very popular in Japan.

Japanese celebrities frequently include their blood type in their profiles, along with age and hobbies. It is frequently included in character descriptions in manga, television shows, and video games. Apart from the more standard services, Japanese matchmaking services frequently include blood type as a consideration. It is also common for people to exchange their blood types when meeting, and some consider it unusual for a person not to know.
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